A study in Asia-Pacific countries found that for men, childhood emotional abuse or neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing abuse of the mother were
associated with all forms of intimate partner violence perpetration.
Women who experienced these forms of violence in childhood were at increased risk of experiencing violence by men in adulthood.
In the USA alone, the total lifetime economic burden associated with substantiated cases of child maltreatment occurring in one year was US$ 428 billion in 2015. For the year 2017, total annual costs attributable to ACEs were estimated to be US$ 581 billion in Europe and US$ 748 billion in North America, and it is estimated that a 10% reduction in ACE prevalence could equate to annual savings of US$ 105 billion.